Words from Beowulf we could have kept
Byrnie - this just sounds like a fashionable jacket. It was a shorty, falling just above the waist with sleeves stopping at the elbow. Oh, it was made of chainmail. Today's versions could be quite fun crafted from can tabs. Recycling with a twist.
Kenning - Meaning a "turn of phrase," or a metaphor, it refers to word-groups that seem clever to us, such as "wave-floater," meaning a sailing vessel.
Mere - translating into a "lake," this term does still stand today, but it's paired with other words, such as Windermere.
Scop - The scop was a poet, but this capacity also required singing along with a talent for entertaining. And he had to be a historian as well. Multi-tasking at its best.
Thane - a fighter, or warrior. Thanes ranked above common folk, but weren't royalty, either.
Weder-people - This is a bad term, a slanderous attack on the Geats (Beowulf was a Geat). But isn't it much nicer than some of the things we hear today?
Wergild - also known as a "man-price." The ultimate grief-reliever when a man was killed. His kinsmen would be required either to slay the killer or extract a "man-price" from him, equal to the deceased human's pre-determined value.
Wyrd - a "fate" or "fates," which in pre-Christian terms was the replacement for an almighty deity.
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